Graphics is a branch of fine arts, which is significant for having a huge variety of techniques. The main means for creating an image are a cutout line, different compositions of white and black spots, line-drawing. In graphic art a drawing is made using a pencil, a pen, pieces of carbon and sanguine. An image is drawn on paper or incised using a chisel, a graver, a knife, an etching needle (sometimes being etched with acid) on wooden, metal clichés, drawn on stone plates, from which sheets are printed.
Pieces of graphic art are often of extensive edition. Graphics has several branches: sheet printing (separate sheets – plates or series, cycles of them), book printing (illustrations of books, periodical publications, cover pages, title pages, headpieces, colophons, cartoons, paraphs), applied graphics (post stamps, labels, diplomas, posters, artistic type, product trademarks, labels). Several printing sorts are distinguished:
It includes metal engravings. An image impressed from a cliché with an incised drawing.
|• Copper engraving|
|• Soft lacquer|
Most popular techniques include wood carving (also called woodcutting) and linocut. An image from an imprint makes prominent relief in both cases.
|• Wood carving|
It includes lithography. In this case special lithography stones are being used, an image from which is separated using chemicals.
It includes serigraphy. Impressions are made using stencils of paint leaky silk fabrics.
|• Serigraphy (Silk-screen)|