Plane printmaking

Lithography

Lithography (lito- + gr. graphō – write) – it is a technique of plane print. Lithography stone (limestone) is used as a base for such printing. Printing elements are drawn using lithography ink or lithography pencil in two ways: drawing directly on polished stone or on lithography paper (on specially prepared, of uneven surface, having a special first-coat). Designs are drawn or painted with a greasy pencil on specially prepared limestone and after that, the printing form is being etched by acid. A drawing made on lithography paper is impressed on stone. The acid cannot affect greasy stone parts, and the affected damp parts of stone do not adhere printing ink. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in 1796, who was actually looking for a cheap and comfortable way for printing and duplicating notes. Colour lithography (chromolithograph) is printed from several stones. The technique of lithography was widely used by romanticism artists, namely Théodore Géricault, Eugéne Delacroix, Honoré Daumier and others. In Lithuania the first lithography printing house was established in 1920, in Vilnius University. The first Lithuanian lithographer was the decorator of Vilnius city theatres – Mr. Glovackis.

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